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Glossary solenoid key terms

Solenoid Key Terms Glossary

Solenoid Key Terms Glossary

What does a solenoid do and how do they function? Kendrion has a glossary of almost 70 words to help better understand solenoids

Ambient temperature The mean temperature of the environment of the solenoid.
B-H curve A graphical curve showing the relation between the magnetic induction B and magnetizing force H for a magnetic material. Also known as magnetization curve.
Bi-directional valve Allows fluid flow in both directions through the valve. If a valve is labeled as a 2-way valve, it does not mean that it is also bi-directional.
Burst pressure The maximum pressure which may be applied to a valve without causing external leakage. However, permanent damage may occur to internal component. The burst pressure is often multiple times the normal maximum pressure.
Buzz A sound (vibration) associated with AC valves when the plunger is not staying in contact with the stop.
Continuous operation An operation for which time-on is so long that a final temperature is reached.
Diaphragm A thin sheet of material forming a partition. A taut, flexible membrane in mechanical or acoustic systems. For Solenoids, the diaphragm regulates liquid flow within the device so certain regions don't get flooded during operation.
Duty cycle The percentage ratio of the time-on to the total cycle time.
Encapsulated coil The coil is encapsulated in epoxy or other suitable resin
Flow rate Volume of fluid that passes per unit of time. SI unit is cubic meters per second. In solenoids certain flow rates must be preserved for proper functioning.
Insulation class When the isolation valve is energized, the solenoid retracts the armature that is attached to a flexible diaphragm. In a normally closed valve, this raises the diaphragm allowing fluid to flow between the inlet and outlet ports. A normally open isolation valve, the operation is reversed. When the valve is energized, the diaphragm presses down to close the fluid path.
Leakage When fluid escapes from a solenoid system. Often due to problems with the valve/valve seat.
Media The substance that passes through the valve. Different media types include water, air, oil, gas etc.
Monostable solenoid Valve that when de-energized, the monostable valve's solenoid reverts to a stable position.
Nominal power Defined as the product off the nominal voltage and the nominal current at a coil temperature of 20°C / 68°F.
Nominal voltage The operating voltage given in the data sheets.
Normally closed The valve is closed when the solenoid is not energized.
Normally open The valve is open when the solenoid is not energized.
Operational life The life of an electromagnetic solenoid depends not only on the design but also on external conditions such as climate, temperature, dirty conditions, etc., Additionally, loading has a significant influence on the life time.
Orifice An opening in a pipe or tube. There are several orifices in a solenoid depending on the model. They transfer fluid.
Port (inlet + outlet) The media (fluid or gas) from the source enter the valve through the inlet port, exits the outlet port.
Protection class Classifications used to differentiate between the protective-earth connection requirements of devices. They range from class 0 to class 3.
PWM A DC supply voltage that is switched on and off at a given frequency for a modulated period of time. PWM signals are used for proportionally controlling solenoids.
Release force The force necessary to move the armature back into the stroke start position after switching off.
Reset delay The time between the instant of switching off the coil until the armature start to move.
Reset time Is the sum of the reset delay and return time.
Residual force The force remaining after the solenoid has been switched off.
Return time The time between the beginning of the armature return movement until the stroke start position is reached.
Set delay The time from the moment of switching on the coil until the armature starts to move.
Set time The sum of set delay and stroke time.
Short time operation An operation in which the time-on is so short that the final temperature is not reached and the time-off is so long that the solenoid cools almost to ambient temperature.
Single stroke solenoid The armature is led on both sides with maintenance-free precision bearings. This type series excels by small dimensions and low power consumption at maximum stroke movement, short switching times and smooth operation.
Solenoid force Is the useable mechanical force, minus the friction force, created in the direction of the stroke.
Stroke end position The position of the armature after the end of the stroke movement and is a design parameter of the solenoid.
Stroke force The solenoid force which is useable externally after taken into consideration the appropriate armature weight.
Stroke start position The position of the armature before the beginning of the stroke movement, or after the armature has been reset.
Stroke time The time from the beginning of the armature movement from stoke start position until the armature reaches the stroke end position.
Stroke work The integral of the solenoid force (F) over the magnetic stroke(s).
Temperature difference The difference between the temperature of the solenoid or a part of it and the temperature of the surrounding coolant (for uncooled solenoids, the air).
Temperature limit The highest permissible temperature of a solenoid or any part of it. The temperature is mostly determined by the thermal resistance of the insulating materials.
3 way valve Valves with one inlet and two outlets. Used in larger models where more fluid is passed through the solenoid system.
Time-off The time between switching-off the operating current and switching-on again.
Time-on The time between switching-on and switching-off the operating current.
2 way valve Valves with one inlet and one outlet. Are used to permit and shut off fluid flow.
Viscosity The measure of resistance to flow or "stickiness" of a fluid. The higher the viscosity, the higher the flow resistance.